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chmod

Change access permissions

Usage: chmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... NUMERIC_MODE FILE...
       chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...

options:
  -f, --silent, --quiet   suppress most error messages

  -v, --verbose           output a diagnostic for every file processed
  -c, --changes           like verbose but report only when a change is made

      --reference=RFILE   use RFILE's mode instead of MODE values

  -R, --recursive         change files and directories recursively

      --help              display help and exit

      --version           output version information and exit

chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to MODE, which can be either an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions or a symbolic representation of changes to make, (+-= rwxXstugoa)

Numeric mode:

From one to four octal digits
Any omitted digits are assumed to be leading zeros.

The first digit = selects attributes for the set user ID (4) and set group ID (2) and save text image (1)S
The second digit = permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write (2), and execute (1)
The third digit = permissions for other users in the file's group: read (4), write (2), and execute (1)
The fourth digit = permissions for other users NOT in the file's group: read (4), write (2), and execute (1)

The octal (0-7) value is calculated by adding up the values for each digit
User (rwx) = 4+2+1 = 7
Group(rx) = 4+1 = 5
World (rx) = 4+1 = 5
chmode mode = 0755

Examples

Allow read permission to everyone:
chmod 444 file

Make a file readable and writable by the group and others:
chmod 066 file

Allow everyone to read, write, and execute the file:
chmod 777 file

Chmod
Permission Owner Group Other
Read
Write
Execute

Symbolic Mode

The format of a symbolic mode is `[ugoa...][[+-=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]'.

Multiple symbolic operations can be given, separated by commas.

A combination of the letters `ugoa' controls which users' access to the file will be changed:

The user who owns it (u)
Other users in the file's group (g)
Other users not in the file's group (o)
All users (a)

If none of these are given, the effect is as if `a' were given, but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.

all users (a) is effectively
user + group + others

The operator '+' causes the permissions selected to be added to the existing permissions of each file; '-' causes them to be removed; and '=' causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.

The letters 'rwxXstugo' select the new permissions for the affected users:

Read (r),
Write (w),
Execute (or access for directories) (x),
Execute only if the file is a directory or already has execute permission for some user (X),
Set user or group ID on execution (s),
Save program text on swap device (t),
The permissions that the user who owns the file currently has for it (u),
The permissions that other users in the file's group have for it (g),
Permissions that other users not in the file's group have for it (o).

Examples
Deny execute permission to everyone:
chmod a-x file

Allow read permission to everyone:
chmod a+r file

Make a file readable and writable by the group and others:
chmod go+rw file

Allow everyone to read, write, and execute the file and turn on the set group-ID:
chmod =rwx,g+s file

Notes:
When chmod is applied to a directory:
read = list files in the directory
write = add new files to the directory
execute = access files in the directory

chmod never changes the permissions of symbolic links. This is not a problem since the permissions of symbolic links are never used. However, for each symbolic link listed on the command line, chmod changes the permissions of the pointed-to file. In contrast, chmod ignores symbolic links encountered during recursive directory traversals.

This page documents the GNU version of chmod.

"Whether a pretty woman grants or withholds her favours, she always likes to be asked for them" - Ovid (Ars Amatoria)